Macdonald O'Brien Fitzgerald Nixon Cameron Darwin Davis Dixon Campbell
The prefixes Mac-, O-, Mc-, Fitz-, and B-. as in McDonald, Fitzgerald, O’Brien, Bowen in British and Irish names all mean the son of the one named without the prefix. For example Donald, Gerald, Brien or Owen. Bowen means son of Owen – (Welsh). Dixon as name came from Dick’s son written with fancy. Dick is an abbreviation of Richard. Thompson is son of Thomas (Tom)
The suffices -son and -sen also reflect the idea of one person being the son of someone else. For example Johnson (son of John), Jansen – Dutch form of that name (son of Jan). Jones also means John’s son. Anderson is son of Andrew. Davis means son of David. Nixon means son of Nick (abbreviation of Nicholas). Wilson and also Williams means son of William (abreviated Will).
Some personal names reflect personal features. For example Cameron – an English name means twisted nose, while Campbell means twisted mouth. Harold as name came from the Danish name Harald meaning red hair. Roth and Reed both also mean red-haired or red faced. Boyd means yellow-haired.
Churchill the surname means church hill, reflecting location of the family home. Moore or More reflects that the family lives near or on a moor. Holt reflects wood. Thorpe in a name means village (dorp in Dutch). Thwaite as in Breithwaite means a clearing perhaps among the woods (. Darwin as name came from the Old English words deaore for dear, and wine for friend, thus meaning dear friend.
Some named reflect occupation – such as Baker, Smith, Taylor, Miller, Sawyer, Turner, Cantor (singer), Capenter, Foster (forester), Lambert (lamb herd), Bauer (peasant).
Jews often have Central European surnames because for a long time they were forbidden to have family names. Hence they ended up adopting those of their European host countries, or the names of valuable objects like stein - meaning stone in the sense of gemstones.